The first weather and climate studies in Ukraine were carried out in the 1930's and related to the expeditions organized by the St. Petersburg Academy of Sciences, which at that time was the main center of science in the Russian Empire. Simultaneously, in St. Petersburg, in 1722, the first meteorological observations were started, and then they began in other cities, particularly in Kharkov (1738-1741), in the village of Snovska (now Schors), near Chernigov (1769-1782). In the years 1770-1771, doctor Lerhe performed his first instrumental observations in Kyiv. At the beginning of the 19th century, amateur meteorological stations appeared in Ukraine in Kyiv (1804), Berdichev (1814), Odessa (1821), Poltava (1824). However, all these observations were conducted irregularly and according to different methodologies.
Founded in 1855 in St. Volodymyr's University of Kyiv, the Meteorological Observatory became, for some time, the center of climate research and played a significant role in the further development of meteorology and climatology in Ukraine, in fact launching the creation of a meteorological service in Ukraine.
The first director of the Kiev Meteorological Observatory was the physicist E.A. Knorr. The observatory at different times was led by prominent scientists-professors M.I. Talyzin, P.I. Brounov, Academicians M.P. Avenarius, J.J. Kosonogov, B.I. Sreznevsky, as well as meteorologist T.K. Bogatyr, who eventually became the head of the hydrometeorological service of Ukraine. Generally more than 30 directors led the observatory.
In 1924, the Observatory was withdrawn from the university and subordinated to UkrScience. In 1925, the Kiev Meteorological Observatory was reorganized into a magnetic-meteorological observatory. Since 1929, the Observatory became a part of the Ukrainian Hydrometeorological Service. The Observatory was located (until 1964) at the address: L. Tolstoy Street, 14.
After the liberation of Kiev from the German occupation, the work of the Observatory was restored in 1944 in Kyiv on the street Tolstoy 14. His new leaders were V.P. Popov and І.І. Daniltsev, the name has also changed - the Research Geophysical Observatory.
In 1941, the second hydrometeorological institution was established in Kyiv - the Kiev Hydrological Observatory. By the decision of the Council of Ministers of the USSR on November 26, 1952, the Ukrainian Research Hydrometeorological Institute, which includes parts of both observatories of geophysical and hydrological, was organized in 1953 in Kyiv,. The Institute has been located at Science Avenue37 since 1958. In 1956 the Kyiv Hydrometeorological Observatory (from May 1973 - the Ukrainian Hydrometeorological Observatory) was organized on the basis of the regime departments of the Hydrometeorological Service of the Ukrainian SSR - the main methodical center for all types of hydrometeorological observations (except marine).
Since 1964, the observatory is located in the newly built premises at Prospect Nauki 39, building 2. In the 1960's, a new direction of activity - the study and control of environment pollution began to develop in the hydrometeorological service. In order to guide this type of work at the Observatory in March 1973, a department for monitoring and controlling of the environment pollution was organized. Which, since its creation in 1980, was headed by V.I. Duginov. At this time the work on the study of radioactive contamination of the natural environment expand, that has been particularly intensified since 1986 after the Chernobyl disaster, when the combined radiation and ecological unit was created in Ukraine.
In the years 1980-1983, some changes were made in the Ukrainian GMO. In 1980, the Kyiv Center for the Study and Control of Environmental Pollution, which operated as an independent organization, was organized on September 30, 1988 on basis of the Department of Observation and Control over Pollution of the Environment. In 1983, the Ukrainian GMO was united with the Ukrainian Weather Bureau, and this organization was named as the Hydrometeorological Center of the Ukrainian Republican Department for Hydrometeorology and Environmental Control (UkrDHEC). However, since October 1, 1988, all of the regime departments of the Hydrometeorological Center were returned to the newly created Ukrainian Center for Radiological Control and Environmental Pollution (UkrUCREP). Since October 24, 1988, the Center was headed by O. Kosovets, who, from December 1985, headed the Department of study and control of environmental pollution of UkrDHEC. In accordance with paragraph 2 of the order of the Ukrainian Republican Department of Hydrometeorology of 20.02.1989 number 44, UkrUCREP was transformed in to the Ukrainian Center for Radiation and Hydrometeorological Observations (Ukrainian CGRS).
Since February 1, 1989 the Center has been transferred to an independent financial balance. From May 1, 1992, the Ukrainian CGRS was reorganized into the Republican Center for Environmental Monitoring (RCEM), and its leader became a member of the newly established Board of the State Committee for Hydrometeorology. In April 1993, the Center opened an account on special funds, which allowed, in conditions of a budget deficit, to reduce the negative consequences of the financial crisis in Ukraine.
From May 1, 1996, the RCEM receives a name that more fully corresponds to the modern and historical functions of the organization - the Central Geophysical Observatory (CGO). O.O.Kosovets is the director of the observatory. While working as Director of the CGO, Kosovets O.O. in parallel with the main work of the head is constantly engaged in scientific and educational work on environmental issues and environmental monitoring, is a co-author of four monographs, dozens of scientific articles and publications, by means of mass media, actively popularizes the activities of the hydrometeorological service of Ukraine and CGO.
The international aspect of Kosovets O.O. activity is important. in the field of monitoring of environment pollution. From 1992 to 2014, he led the monitoring groupe of the Interstate Council for Hydrometeorology of the Commonwealth of Independent States (ICH). In March 2000, by order of the Chairman of the State Hydromet, he was awarded the title "Honorary Worker of the Hydrometeorological Service", and in August 2006 he was awarded the title "Honorary Worker of the Hydrometeorological Service of Russia". In total, 21 employees of the Observatory were awarded the title "Honorary Worker of the Hydrometeorological Service" (without subordinated hydrometeorological stations).
Department of Meteorology. The main functions of the department were carried out since the establishment of the Observatory in 1855 - a generalization of observational data, methodological assistance to other observing organizations.
Today, the department provides the development of normative documents and the observance of common methods for conducting observations at meteorological stations and posts with the meteorological division of work on the territory of Ukraine, assisting in the development of new devices, technologies and methods of observation, control and generalization of meteorological and actinometric data. Meteorological monthly and yearly reports include regime data of all meteorological stations and stations.
All stations conduct eight-time monitoring of the main meteorological elements: temperature and humidity of air, temperature of the soil, direction and wind speed, atmospheric pressure, precipitation, cloudiness, snow cover.Round-the-clock observation of atmospheric and natural hydrometeorological phenomena is carried out.
At many stations, new devices of ukrainian production were introduced: Barometer BAR, anemometers MARK-60, automated precipitation meter APM-1M, meters of the lower edge of clouds "Promin", and the automated workplace of the meteorologist AWM-METEO was introduced at the stations. The transmission of synoptic and storm telegrams is carried out by means of Internet. The priority climatic network consists of reference stations, which have a long range of observations, the most skilled personnel and an expanded program of observations and work.
Weather information from 61 stations is used for regional international exchange. Telegrams with the index "Climate" with averaged over a month data are provided by 30 meteorological stations for exchange according to the program of the World Meteorological Organization.
The aerologic sector works as part of the meteorological department and provides methodological guidance to the network of air stations of the hydrometeorological service of Ukraine, incl. controls the observance of aerial surveillance techniques, data quality. The first issue of the radio probe in Kiev was carried out in the summer of 1935 from Bogdan Khmelnytskyi Square, and now it is carried out from the territory of the CGO meteorological station on the Nauky Avenue, 37.
Aerologic observations or temperature-wind sensing of the atmosphere are carried out with the help of radio probes, the result of this process is the determination of temperature, humidity, pressure, direction and wind speed at different heights.
The data of aerological observations are used by the forecasting bodies of the hydrometeorological service for the preparation of weather forecasts, including for aviation services, as well as scientists. The Department of Climatology exists since 1925 and prepares a climatological information. The most complete, and most convenient form for the consumer, the climatological information is presented in Directories, climatic atlases, monographs, and others.
In 2005, the Department of Climatology completed the fundamental work - "Climatic Cadastre of Ukraine". The prepared Cadastre differs from previously issued Guides both in form and content and reflects the current state of Ukraine's climate. "The Climate Cadastre of Ukraine" consists of 6 parts: "Solar radiation and sunshine", "Atmospheric pressure and wind", "Air and soil temperature", "Humidity, precipitation and snow cover", "Cloudiness", "Atmospheric phenomena and icing formations ".
The Cadastre presents long-term indicators of meteorological values in selected hours, day, month, and year. Based on climatic information, which was generalized to compile the "Climate Cadastre Ukraine ", in 2003 a collective monograph" Climate of Ukraine ", prepared by experts of the hydrometeorological service, was published.
The department actively participated in the preparation of the monograph "The Climate of Kyiv", which was published in 2010. At the initiative of the Director of the CGO in 2009, the "Climate Records of Kyiv" were printed, in 2010 the posters "Climate Records of Ukraine" and " Climatic records of Kyiv region ".
Department of hydrology and state water cadastre. In 1877 a water-meter post was opened in Kyiv on the Dnieper, and in 1881 the first edition with the data of water-based observations was published.
As part of the observatory, a separate unit on hydrology appeared in 1956. However, it's activity starts from October 1927, when the Hydrometeorological unit of the USSR Folk Commissariat was attached to the Office of the Meteorological Service of the Ukrainian SSR and the Office of the Meteorological and Hydrological Service of the Ukrainian SSR was established.
The Department of Hydrology carries out methodical management of hydrometeorological organizations of hydrometeorological service of Ukraine with hydrological sections of works.
The department carries out processing of data observations, preparation and publication of materials of the state water cadastre, incl. hydrological yearbooks and reference books.
A significant achievement of the department in recent years is the renewal of the publication of the reference "Long-term data on the regime and resources of surface water of land" in 3 issues, which today includes a synthesis of materials for 2010 with information on the regime of rivers, lakes and reservoirs.
The promotion of hydrological research is facilitated by the posters "Hydrological Records of Ukraine" (2012) and "Hydrological Records of the Waterpost Kyiv" prepared in the department (2014).
The Integrated Hydrographic Party (IHP) exists in the CGO since 1959 and is a specialized structural subdivision. IHP was established in 1952 to study natural and dangerous hydrological phenomena, conduct hydrographic surveys, mapometric and topographical-geodesic works, as well as methodological guidance for similar work performed on the network of observations of the hydrometeorological service.
In recent years, specialists of the IHP prepared and issued the "Catalog of meteorological network heights", "Materials of observation of snow cover and precipitation in the mountains", "Catalog of mud pools and cells", "Catalog of heights of the hydrological network of the hydrometeorological service of Ukraine". The Department of Chemical Pollution Monitoring was established in the Observatory in 1973, conducts monitoring of the state of chemical pollution of the natural environment on the network attached to the CGO (Kyiv and Kyiv region), and the analysis of environmental samples received from the hydrometeorological organizations forms the primary bank data on chemical pollution of atmospheric air and surface water of land according to observation network data.
It manages the methodological guidance of hydrometeorological organizations and monitors the quality of the results of monitoring the state of pollution of the environment.
The department consists of five laboratories: observations on atmospheric air pollution, observations on pollution of the surface waters of the land, hydrobiology, monitoring of soil contamination and monitoring of heavy metals, physical and chemical methods of analysis.
On the territory of Kyiv and the cities of Kyiv region - the Bila Tserkva, Brovaru, Obukhov and Ukrainka - observation of atmospheric air pollution is carried out at 21 posts. The total samples of atmospheric precipitation and snow cover samples, taken at observation stations on the chemical composition of precipitation on the territory of Ukraine, are analyzed. Also, at 41 stations, the pH of precipitation of each fall is determined.
The content of heavy metals in aerosols in Ukrainian cities is determined. Surveillance of the state of chemical contamination of surface water of land and on the hydrobiological indicators at the points of the observation network is monitored.
Every year, the survey of soils of agricultural lands in the regions of Ukraine on the content of residual amounts of pesticides and nitrates and soils in Ukrainian cities is carried out to determine the content of toxicants of industrial origin.
The Department of Radiation and Ecological Control was established in July 1986. Specialists of the Observatory, including the department's staff, took an active part in assessing the scale of the consequences of the Chernobyl accident, identifying and clarifying contours of radioactive contamination zones in Ukraine.
The department includes: Radiation Control Laboratory (organized in 1964), Laboratory of Radiochemistry and Sampling, Spectrometry, and Information Processing Sector.
The main areas of activity of the department are the methodological supervision of the monitoring network of the hydromet of the radioecology section and the systematization and compilation of data on radioactive contamination of the environment in Ukraine.
The department specializes in the implementation of: - selection and laboratory analysis of samples of the environment using radiometric, radiochemical and gamma-spectrometric research methods; - measurement of the exposure dose rate of gamma radiation on land plots, industrial and residential premises; - determination of the content of radionuclides in food products, building and lumber, etc.
The department's activities include observation and laboratory monitoring stations, control points for radioactive contamination of atmospheric precipitation, air aerosol control points, and sampling points for surface waters.
The current radiometric network covers the whole territory of Ukraine and allows to control the main factors that form the dose load and can negatively affect the health of the population (in case of a violation of the technological cycle on radiation-hazardous objects).
The Department of Information on the state of pollution of the environment as an independent unit was separated from the Department of Monitoring of the state of pollution of the environment in August 1980.
The main tasks of the department are to provide the state bodies, organizations, enterprises, mass media with the current information on the state of pollution of the environment, as well as the collection and processing of operational and regime information from hydrometeorological organizationson the state of pollution of the environment on the territory of Ukraine; analysis of the coordination of the results of calculations of background concentrations of air pollution in the cities of Ukraine; calculation of background concentrations of harmful impurities in the air of Kiev and cities of the Kiev region and calculation of phone concentrations of pollutants in water of watercourses at the request of organizations; preparation of observation materials, informative materials on the state of pollution of the environment for the sectoral state archive of hydrometeorological service; Implementation of methodological guidance by the laboratories of the observation network on the preparation of informational materials.
The generalization of information on the state of environmental pollution on the territory of Ukraine is carried out according to laboratories of the environmental monitoring network of the State Hydrometeorological Service.
Information on the state of environmental pollution in Kyiv and cities of the Kiev region, as well as on the state of environmental pollution on the territory of Ukraine for the first half of the year and the year is posted on the site of the CGO (www.cgo.kiev.ua).
In 2003, according to the data of observations of the CGO and with its experts, the "Ecological atlas of Kiev" was prepared, issued with the assistance of the Kyiv city state administration; In 2006, the second, supplementary edition of this Atlas was prepared. Basically, according to CGO data, the State Research and Production Association "Kartografia" issued a training card "Ukraine. Ecological situation "(2011).
The branch state archive of hydrometeorological service of Ukraine (BSA of hydrometeorological service) was created in accordance with the Resolution of the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine dated July 31, 1995 No. 570 "On the creation of a sectoral state archive of the State Committee for Hydrometeorology". It is the successor to the hydrometeorological fund of the Hydrometeorological Service, founded in 1958.
The BSA is a subdivision of the CGO with a special status. This is the only specialized archive in Ukraine, which stores unique information about the past and present state of the environment of Ukraine on its quantitative and qualitative indicators, namely: documents on hydrology, meteorology, agrometeorology, aerology, weather forecasters, hydrobiology, information on radiation control and materials on observation of environmental pollution according to observations of hydrometeorological stations, hydrometeorological stations and observation posts for atmospheric pollution in several dozen Ukraine's cities.
The branch state archive of hydrometeorological service operates in three departments. The main task of the department of preparation and issuance of information is to provide specialized hydrometeorological information and information on the state of the environment of state authorities, ministries, departments, organizations and institutions of economic sectors of Ukraine of different forms of ownership. These works are made in accordance with contracts or one-time orders for the corresponding fee, the legal basis of which is the Resolution of the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine dated October 26, 2011 № 1102 "Some issues of providing paid services by units of the Ministry of Emergency Situations".
The data, prepared in the department, have the necessary scientific, technical and historical background, because they have undergone the necessary control in the appropriate methodological departments of the CGO before they are the basis for calculations or certificates.
In the storage department of paper information, hydrometeorological information and information on the state of pollution of the environment are found in funds: meteorological, hydrological, agrometeorological, synoptic, aerological,data on the monitoring of the state of pollution of the environment, data hydrometeorological observations of the departmental network, information reference and regulatory literature. The archive contains separate materials of meteorological observations from the beginning of the XIX century, the unique hydrological yearbooks of Austria-Hungary from the middle of the XIX century, documents of the period of the First World, Civil War and World War II.
The Department of storage of information on technical media receives for long-term storage hydrometeorological information and information about the state of the environment, which is formed by the Hydrometeorological Service of Ukraine. In accordance with the established requirements, provides compact and reliable storage and access to information on technical media.
The department of technology exists in the Observatory since 1965. It is engaged in regular preventive maintenance and repair of post monitoring equipment for atmospheric air pollution, conducts metrological calibration of monitoring devices, which number about 300 units. The department consists of the sectors of metrology, technical maintenance, maintenance of computer networks.
The observatory also possesses - accounting (1989), departments of economic provision (1944), personnel (1989) and organizational and planning (1994).