CENTRAL GEOPHYSICAL OBSERVATORY named after Boris Sreznevsky 3 Жовтня 2022 Понеділк
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History of CGO

The first period

On May 23, 1844, the St. Petersburg (Russian) Academy of Sciences addressed a letter to the guardian of the Kyiv Educational District with the suggestion: "... to establish at those of the gymnasiums and schools, in which it is believed to be the best, meteorological observatories and to establish in Kyiv the central institutions of the same kind , from which station observers could at the same time receive the instructions and information they need ... "

On August 24, 1846, the guardian of the Kyiv Educational District approved the proposal of V. Chekhovich "On the organization of the network of meteorological stations and the central institution of this genus in the very city of Kiev". According to V. Chekhovich, "for the device of the Meteorological Observatory everything is necessary to Kiev University of St. Vladimir."

V. Chekhovich appealed to the Academy of Sciences with a request for the allocation of devices for the organization of the observatory and the network of meteorological stations, but due to lack of funds, the Academy of Sciences could not allocate devices for the network and proposed to restrict the arrangement of the Meteorological Observatory in Kiev itself at the university.

On February 12, 1851, a letter from St.Petersburg Director of the Main Physical Observatory Professor KupferA.Ya. was received in Kiev. with the approval of the project of the House of Meteorological Observatory in Kiev, made by architect Beretti. This house, located on the street. L. Tolstoy, 14 had a sign of architectural monument, but several years ago it was destroyed and in its place appeared "very important"object  for the capital  - the casino "Mario".

The construction of the observatory began on May 18, 1851, that is why May is a happy month for  the observatory, because the official opening of the observatory was held on May 15, 1855.
The first director of the Observatory from 1855 to 1858 was professor of physics at  Kyiv University E.O. Knorr

 Kyiv Observatory paid a lot of attention to meteorological observations. Already in May 1855, observations of the weather, published May 15-20, the same year, were published in the University of Kyiv. Publications of these materials and in the future received great attention.
The leaders of the Observatory in the XIX century were, as a rule, prominent scholars.

E. Talyzin, a professor of physics and mathematics at the University of Kiev, was the director of the Observatory from 1858 to 1865. During this period, he organized a monthly publication of meteorological observations in the Izvestia of the University.

From 1865 to 1885, the observatory was headed by M.P. Avenarius, one of the prominent  physicists of the second half of the XIX century. He owns one of the first works on meteorology, "Some of the Results of 12-year Observations at the University Meteorological Observatory," published in the University Newsletter in 1868.

MP Avenarius achieved material incentives for observers, strengthened the material base of the observatory, expanded the scope of meteorological observations, and created a school of meteorologists.
Student and follower of MP Avenarius was AV KlossovskyDuring the 90s of the XIX century, he organized and directed the activities of the meteorological network of Southwest Russia. This network covered the province: Bessarabsky, Kherson, Tavriysk, southern districts of the Kiev and Podolsk provinces. All the meteorological stations organized by him were observing precipitation, thunderstorms, snow cover height, as well as a detailed or reduced agricultural diary.  AV Klosovskii paid attention to the role and value of weather in agricultural production.

The network was kept at the expense of the provinces, cities and state institutions. Observational materials were published in meteorological surveys, works of the meteorological network of Southwest Russia. Totally 6 volumes of this edition came out.

Even more authority of the observatory grew during the leadership period of P.I. Brounov (1891-1895). He began his work at the Observatory to expand the surveillance program on the network from subordinate observatories to meteorological stations. Soon he organized a regular issue "Observations of the Meteorological Observatory" (more than 40 issues total) and the publication "Works on Agricultural Meteorology".

During the period of work in the observatory PI Brounov organized the Prydniprovska network of meteorological stations, which included meteorological stations located in the basin of the Dnieper, Oka, Don (Kiev, Chernigiv, Poltava, Kharkiv, Kursk, Orlov, Mogilev, Minsk and Grodno regions). The structure of this network in 1896 consisted of more than 700 meteorological stations, that is much more than today.

Organized by PI Brounow Prydniprovska meteorological network successfully worked before the beginning of the First World War.Many years of work in the field of agricultural meteorology brought P. I. Brounow world fame and he rightfully belongs to the founders of agrometeorology, the foundations of which were made in Kiev.

Twenty years from 1895 to 1916 the Observatory was headed by I.I. Kosonogov Under his guidance, the observatory developed new specialized types of observations: the rains, solar radiation. Then it was organized information service on vegetation and crop of agricultural cultures.

Under Kosonogov I.I. 52 issues of the "Agricultural Meteorological Bulletin of the Kyiv Meteorological Observatory" were published, which had great authority and demand from zemstvos.

During the First World War, the meteorological network provided the country with the needs of the country's weather information. The role and significance of the service  increased especially in connection with the beginning of use by German troops of poisonous substances. The echo of this phenomenon was the book of O.F. Wangenheim "Gas Meteorology", which was published in 1916 in the 9th Army printing press. The book provided recommendations for the protection of troops in the event of the enemy's use of gases in certain areas of the front. Alexander Fedorovich Wangenheim, a native of Chernigov region, after the formation of a single USSR hydro-meteorological service, became its first chief and was shot, "in the mark" 20 years of Soviet power. The true date of the death of a famous compatriot was  established by Kosovets O. and Duginov VI. There was the corresponding publication in 1988 in the journal Roshydromet, "Meteorology and Hydrology."

According to Veterans of the Observatory, during the time of the Ukrainian People's Republic, the chief ataman of the UNR Simon Petliura met with the work of the Observatory. Unfortunately, in the following years the collective was not honored to be visited at least by the minister. 

In 1924, the Magnet-Meteorological Observatory was withdrawn from the university and subordinated to Ukrnauka. In 1926, at Ukrnauka, the Department of Geophysics and Agricultural Meteorology was organized, led by B.I. Sreznevsky, remaining at the same time as the director of the observatory. Since 1929, the Observatory became part of the then created Hydrometeorological Committee of the USSR.
The conditions of the city made it difficult to conduct a series of meteorological observations. The observatory in connection with the growth of the city less and less reflects the climatic conditions of the area, where the city is located. Therefore, on the initiative of the head of Ukrmet NI Danilevsky in 1925it was decided to organize a geophysical observatory in suburban conditions. For this purpose, the chosen place was near the village of Tymky, 20 km south of Bobrovytsia town of Chernihiv region. In January 1926, meteorological observations were started at the Observatory in Tymky. The main direction of work in Tymky was aerology. However, the close location of the forest array slowed  the development of this type of observation. It was decided to transfer the observatory to Borispol city.

Regular meteorological observations in Boryspil were started in July 1931. In 1934, magnetic-meteorological and actinometric observations were transferred from Kyiv.
The Boryspil Geophysical Observatory, armed with modern at that time equipment and devices , was the largest meteorological and geophysical institution in Ukraine.

75th anniversary of the observatory was marked by the article I.K. Polovka in the fifth issue of the magazine "Weather and Life" for 1930.
Since 1935, Molchanov's radio probe launches began at the Observatory (the newest at that time). In the same year, the radio probe was launched in Kyiv from the square of B. Khmelnytsky. A witness of this launch was Mikhail SergeevichGalchenko, who later in 1976-1981 was the  director of the Ukrainian Hydrometeorological Center.

The first director of the Boryspil Observatory was T.K. Bogatyr, the future long-term head of the Hydrometeorological Service of Ukraine. Later, the heads of the observatory were N.F. Helmholtz, N.Z. Pinus, V.M. Lichikaki, and from 1940 to the beginning of the war – A.P. Fedoseyev. All of them are well-known scientists in the field of meteorology.

After the liberation of Kiev from the German invaders in 1944, a research-and-development geophysical observatory was restored. Its directors were VP V.Popov (1944-1948) G.F.Pryhotko (1948-1950), P.N.Andreichenko (1950-1952) I.I. Daniltsev (1952-1953).
Different hydrometeorological studies were conducted at the Observatory. For example, in 1947 monitoring of atmospheric electricity began.

Agrometeorological observations and studies of the Geophysical Observatory were continued at the Agrometeostation Kiev, which was opened on the then outskirts of the city. Now here (prospect Nauki, 37) there is a hydrometeostation  Kiev, weather data from which every day are heard on the air of Ukrainian radio, and for the high quality of aerological observations in 2005, the station was awarded the Merit certificate of the World Meteorological Organization.

In 1953, the Ukrainian Research Hydrometeorological Institute was opened on the basis of geophysical and hydrological observatories in Kyiv. It consists of research departments,sectors and laboratories of these observatories. The creation of UkrRHMI marked the end of the first period in the activity of the Observatory.


Second period.


In 1956, a new stage in the activity of the observatory began when the Kyiv Meteorological Observatory was organized on the basis of the regime departments of the Ukrainian Department of Hydrometeorology. Its first director was I.Z. Lap (1956-1961), which then changed AA Frost (1961-1965). After him the observatory was led by AP Prikhodko (1965-1971), VM Shmakov (1971-1976), Galchenko MS (1976-1981).

Kyiv Hydrometeorological Observatory from 1956 to 1959 was located in the premises of the Office of Hydrometeorological Service (6, Zolotovoritskaya str.); from 1959 to 1964 - on the street. Tolstoy, 14, and since 1964 - by the present address: 39 Prospect Nauki, building 2.

The restored observatory includes the following departments, laboratories and groups: the Department of Meteorology and Climate, the Department of Actinometry, the Aerology Department, the Department of Hydrology, the Hydrographic Party, the Laboratory of Surface Water and Atmospheric Chemistry, the Department of Hydrometeorological Data Fund.

This time is characterized by the rapid development of monitoring of the state of chemical pollution and radiation pollution.
Significant in the history of the Observatory was 1973. This year , the State Service for Monitoring and Control of Pollution of the Environment was established on the territory of Ukraine . In connection with the increase in the volume of work and taking into account the large proportion of new types of observations, on May 15, 1973, Kyiv GMO was reorganized into the Ukrainian Hydrometeorological Observatory.

The largest development of the SSMCPE network was at the beginning of the 1990s. Then, from 1992-93, its development slowed down, due to the deterioration of the economic situation in the country. However, we managed to maintain the SSMCPE  network as a whole and the quality of monitoring of the state of pollution of the environment.

Unfortunately, the 125th anniversary of the observatory that was  in 1980 was ignored by the leadership, although   two years before the 25th anniversary of the creation of UkrNDGMI had bee celebrated, and a  brochure had been published by the then director of the institute, Logvinova K.T.
The second period began to come to an end in 1983 at Paduna Nikolai Nikolaevich, who was director of the Observatory in 1981-83. According to the order of the former State Committee of the State Committee of Hydrometeorology  of the USSR, republican hydrometeorological centers were established on the basis of republican observatories and weather offices, in particular, in Kyiv, the now well-known Ukrainian Hydrometeorological Center. Since 1983, the Observatory has become the Kyiv Center for Environmental Monitoring and Control, which since July 1, 1986 became known as the Ukrainian Center for Radiological Control of Environmental Pollution, which was supervised by Oleg Vasilyevich Serebryakov from August 1, 1986. Since November 1, 1988 Alexander Kosovets has been the head of the center. Gradually, the center included all the hydropower stations of the Kiev region and Kiev. Since May 1996, the center has returned the status and name of the observatory - the Central Geophysical Observatory. Thus, the second period in the life of the Observatory was over and its current stage began.


The third period.


The last 17 years have been marked by gradual strengthening of the authority of the observatory, greater autonomy in solving financial and economic issues.
In particular, in the first quarter of 1989 the organization moved on to an independent financial balance and for the first time in its history acquired the features of a full organization.
In 1992 A special account was opened in the observatory and it actually accepted a leadership in  providing specialized hydrometeorological information to consumers from various branches of business ,from the former bureau of calculations and certificates (the more well-known Russian name - BCAC), which could not keep up with the new economic conditions.

In August 1994, the 70th anniversary of the meteorological station Yagotin was celebrated, and since then we celebrate jubilees of subordinate hydrometeorological stations or subdivisions of the CGO  every five years.

This initiative spread to the entire network of hydrometeorological services and serves the propagation of hydrometeorological activities.
In 1995 By the Government's decision to form the Republican Center for the Observation of the Status of the Environment - at that time, TsGO was called, the State Gazette of the Hydrometeorological Service of Ukraine was created.

Since May 1996 The observatory received a modern name, which allowed the bridge to be built from the middle of the XIX century to the end of XX century. Moreover, the name "Central Geophysical Observatory" is inscribed in the Law on Hydrometeorological Activity, which was adopted by the Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine in February 1999.

Since May 1996 The observatory received a modern name, which allowed the bridge to be built from the middle of the XIX century to the end of XX century. Moreover, the name "Central Geophysical Observatory" is inscribed in the Law on Hydrometeorological Activity, which was adopted by the Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine in February 1999.The materials of the CGO form the basis of many scientific works, in particular the monograph of Vyshnevsky V.I. and Kosovets O.O. "Hydrometeorological characteristics of the rivers of Ukraine", as well as "Ecological atlas of Kiev".
Since 2005, the publication of works of the CGO  has been restored.

For services to the Ukrainian people, on the occasion of the 150th anniversary of foundation,CGO  was awarded the Charter of the Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine in February 2006.


Chronological table of history of the Central Geophysical Observatory

(founded May 15 1855)



Observatory name


Name of director of the Observatory




Meteorological observatory of Saint Volodymyr University


Khnorr Ernest Austovich






Talyzyn Matviy Ivanovich






Avenarius Mickel Pitovich






Zhuk Kassyan Mikolayovich






Brounov Petro Ivanovich






Kosonogov Yosyp Yosypovich






Byalobrzhevsky Cheslav Tadeyovich

Fled with germans



Kiev meteorological observatory


Fomin Oleksandr Vasylyovich

Head of University Botanical Garden





Polovko Ivan Kyrylovich

fulfilled obligations





Срезневський Борис Ізмайлович




1934-1936 (1937)

Київська метеорологічна обсерваторія (станція І розряду), надається ІІ-ий розряд з кінця липня 1936 р., а геофізична група переміщується до Борисполя до аерофізич-ної обсерваторії і з часом дістає там назву Київська геофізична обсерваторія Київського Управління ГМС


Половко Іван Кирилович





Аерофізична, з появою Київського управління і влиття геофізичної групи КМО – Київська геофізична обсерваторія (з 1937 р.). В цей час існували: Київська метеорологічна обсерва-торія, геофізичні групи Київської метеорологіч-ної обсерваторії, які остаточно у 1937 р. переїхали до Борисполя, та Київська геофізична обсерваторія, що була створена на базі метео-рологічної обсерваторії і підпорядковувалась Інституту геологічних наук Академії наук УРСР та ГУЄГМС України, що з часом перетворилася на геофі-зичну секцію інституту геологічних наук.


Богатир Тимофій Кирилович – перший куратор будівництва та директор Бориспільської аерофізичної обсерваторії. У 1937-1938 роках на посаді завідувача методичним відділом Київського управління ГМС сприяв формуванню нової Київської геофізичної обсерваторії у Борисполі. Київська метеорологічна обсерваторія з кінця липня 1936 року до жовтня 1941 року існувала як метеостанція ІІ розряду

1937-1940 рр. керівник Київської гідрометслужби, 1941-1973 рр. керівник гідромет- служби Української РСР






Київська геофізична обсерваторія


Гельмгольц Микола Федорович
Пінус Наум Зіновійович
Лічікакі Василь Миколайович
Федосеєв Олександр Петрович





Метеорологічна обсерваторія університету


Науковий керівник
Заматохіна Зінаїда Захарівна

Під час німецької окупації



Київська геофізична обсерваторія


Попов Валентин Петрович

Через неможливість проводити спостереження в Борисполі, після визволення Києва у 1943 році, метео-станція Бориспіль-Київ існує на базі колишньої метеорологічної обсерваторії, яка Урядовою постано-вою отримала назву Київська геофізична.





Андрійченко Павло Йосипович





В. о. Прихотько Г.Ф.





Данільцев Ілля Іванович





Бучинський Іван Євстафійович



не існувала як самостійна організація – на базі Київської геофізичної та Київської науково-дослідної гідрологічної обсерваторій створено Український науково-дослідний гідрометеорологічний  інститут. Режимні відділи обсерваторії на цей період тимчасово перейшли до Управління гідрометслужби Української РСР.



Київська гідрометеоро-логічна обсерваторія


Лапа Іван Зіновійович






Мороз Олександр Аверьянович






Приходько Олександр Павлович






Шмаков Валентин Михайлович




Українська гідрометео-рологічна обсерваторія


Шмаков Валентин Михайлович






Гальченко Михайло Сергійович






Падун Микола Миколайович




Не існувала як самостійна організація  на базі УкрГМО та Українського бюро погоди створено Гідрометцентр Українського УГКС



Український центр по радіаційних і гідрометеорологічних спостереженнях


Косовець Олександр Олександрович




Республіканський центр спостережень за станом природного середовища


Косовець Олександр Олександрович



З 1996

Центральна геофізична обсерваторія


Косовець Олександр Олександрович


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